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خرید و دانلود فایل اصطلاحات و گفتار های روز مره به انگلیسی علی حسینی نجف آبادی 1396/02/21 دسته بندی : زبان خارجه 3
در این فایل ارزشمند و بسیار کاربردی شما دوست عزیر با صد ها اصطلاح روزمره انگلیسی (English idioms) آشنا می شوید بطوریکه خیلی راحت می توانید آنها را در گفتار روزمره خود به زبان انگلیسی به کار ببرید و مهارت خود را در این زمینه به خوبی بالا ببرید.خرید و استفاده از این فایل بدون شک بهترین راه جهت تقویت مهارت شما در زمینه اصطلاحات انگلیسی است به شرط اینکه از تنبلی و پشت گوش انداختن خود داری کنید.امیدواریم نهایت استفاده و بهره از خرید این فایل را ببرید.



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دانلود تحقیق آماده در قالب word با عنوان دستور زبان انگلیسی ۹۳ ص محسن شریفیان 1395/10/22 دسته بندی : زبان خارجه 0
قید Adverb
 قید چه نقشی دارد و به چه درد می خورد؟ قید چگونگی فعل را بیان می کند . (در حقیقت قید نسبت به فعل همان نقش صفت نسبت به اسم را دارد) مثال: 
 Tom walking  تام مشغول راه رفتن است. (اما چگونگی راه رفتن راه رفتن او معلوم نیست.): 
How is he walking?                    He is walking slowly             
 Slowly   قید است زیرا چگونگی راه رفتن را بیان می کند. چند مثال : 
The sun is shining brightly.                                                       
She speaks English badly.                                                         
                             They live happily.                                               

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دانلود انگلیسی محاوره ای یك نگرش تعاملی، جمعی، و فكورانه و توسعه مهارتهای مباحثه ای در كلاس درس ESL محمد .ا 1395/08/26 دسته بندی : زبان خارجه 0

دانلود انگلیسی محاوره ای یك نگرش تعاملی، جمعی، و فكورانه و توسعه مهارتهای مباحثه ای در كلاس درس ESL
انگلیسی محاوره ای: یك نگرش تعاملی، جمعی، و فكورانه

توسعه مهارتهای مباحثه ای در كلاس درس ESL

فرمت فايل:Word (قابل ويرايش و آماده پرينت)
تعداد صفحه:45

فهرست مطالب

  • مقدمه. 4
  • روش ها: 6
  • «آزمایش شنونده ها» 6
  • شیوه انجام كار. 7
  • «در خصوص برنامه» 7
  • «ارزیابی برنامه» 8
  • تجزیه و تحلیل. 9
  • «ارزیابی پیوسته تمرینات ضبط شده» 9
  • «امتیازدهی تحلیلی در خصوص تست اولیه و تست نهایی» 9
  • «شرح حال فردی» 9
  • دو حوزة محاوره ای مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند: 10
  • بحث.. 11
  • «هفت دانش آموز» 11
  • كل برنامه. 17
  • «اظهار نظر در مورد عملكرد خود و همكلاسی ها»: 18
  • نتایج: 18
  • پیوست A. 19
  • پیوست B. 20
  • قسمت I: طبقه بندی مهارت در انگلیسی محاوره ای.. 20
  • قسمت 2: فهرست مهارت های مكالمه. 22
  • لهجه. 22
  • «گرامر» 23
  • «واژگان» 23
  • «فصاحت» 24
  • «درك مطلب» 25
  • فصل 20. 26
  • توسعه مهارتهای مباحثه ای در كلاس درس ESL. 26
  • مقدمه. 26
  • «توسعه آزادی عمل دانش آموز» 27
  • «انتخاب موضوع برای بحث» 28
  • «یك نگرش اكتشافی» 29
  • «انجام یك بحث كلاسی» 29
  • «پیش بحث» 30
  • شكل دهی گروهها 30
  • «شناسایی و سازمان دهی موضوع» 31
  • بحث.. 32
  • مشاهده و ارزیابی همكلاسان. 32
  • «نگهداری دفاتر روزانه عملكردها» 35
  • برآورد. 36
  • «پس-بحث» 36
  • «نتیجه گیری» 38

مقدمه

مكالمات، متمایل به سوی شنونده یا شخص می باشند. همچون دیگر امور محاوره ای، یك مكالمه، سخنگو را مستلزم به «مواجهه با محدودیت های زمانی و فشارهای اجتماعی تعامل رودررو» می نماید. یك مكالمه، یك رویداد حقیقتاً ارتباطی است كه «مبادله ای پویا است كه در آن، توانش زبانی بایستی خود را با مجموع درون داد اطلاعاتی – هم زبانی و هم پیرا زبانی – مطابقت دهند».

مكالمات، «با احوالپرسی ها شروع می شوند و از طریق حركات منظم گوناگون، پیش می روند: نقش های گوینده و شنونده، درك می شوند، موضوعات عرضه می گردند، حقوق افراد برای حرف زدن، انگاشته می شوند، موضوعات جدید، مطرح می گردند، و در زمان مناسب، مكالمه به شیوه ای مناسب، خاتمه می یابد» و به بیان مختصر، گوینده و شنونده بایستی ابتكار عمل را به دست بگیرند، سؤال كنند، و یا مخالفت را در مكالمه، ابزار دارند؛ اعمالی كه همگی شان مستلزم تسلط بر ویژگیهایی زبانی خاص بوده و می توانند «یادگرفته شوند». طبقه بندی مكالمة گزارش شده در اینجا، بر مبنای فرضیة قابلیت یادگیری می باشد.

طبق نظر محققان، كلاسهای تدریس مكالمه سنتی در هنگ كنگ، بواسطهء ویژگیهای زیر، شناخته می شوند:

1. درون داد: تمركزی بر جنبه های رسمی زبان وجود دارد، و نسبت به فرآیندهای تعامل محاوره ای – ازجمله جنبه های گروهی تعامل محاوره ای، و مبحث مفاهیم و پیام های محاوره ای، توجه كافی مبذول نمی گردد. درون داد كلاس، معمولاً توسط معلم فراهم می گردد.

 

برچسب پروژه:
٬ انگلیسی محاوره ای: یك نگرش تعاملی، جمعی، و فكورانه, توسعه مهارتهای مباحثه ای در كلاس درس ESL


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دانلود مقاله تحقیقی به زبان انگلیسی با موضوع بیمه Insurance محمد .ا 1395/06/10 دسته بندی : زبان خارجه 0

دانلود مقاله تحقیقی به زبان انگلیسی با موضوع بیمه Insurance 

نوع فایل Word دانلود انواع تحقیق

تعداد صفحات : 25

فهرست محتوا 

پیشگفتار

SIGNIFICANT POINTS 

While corporate downsizing, productivity increases due to new technology, and increasing use of direct mail, telephone, and Internet sales will limit job growth in this large industry, numerous job openings will arise from the need to replace those who leave or retire

Growing areas of the insurance industry are medical services and health insurance, and expansion into other financial services such as securities and mutual funds. 

Office and administrative occupations usually require a high school diploma, whereas employers prefer college graduates for sales, managerial, and professional jobs. 

NATURE OF THE INDUSTRY

WORKING CONDITIONS 

EMPLOYMENT

OCCUPATIONS IN THE INDUSTRY 

Table 1. Employment of wage and salary workers in insurance by occupation, 2004 and projected change, 2004-14. (Employment in thousands) 

TRAINING AND ADVANCEMENT 

EARNINGS 

Table 2. Median hourly earnings of the largest occupations in insurance, May 2004

Source:


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خرید و دانلود پاورپوینت زبان انگلیسی با موضوع ازدواج فاطمه وحیدی 1395/02/27 دسته بندی : زبان خارجه 0

A social unit characterized by the following

economic cooperation

the management of reproduction  and child rearing

common residence.

socially approved sexual relations

Recognition of rights and responsibilities 


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دانلود مقاله به زبان انگلیسی با موضوع بررسی ادراک آموزگاران از تاثیر ایی ال تی در موسسات زبان دولتی و خصوصی ایرانی محمد .ا 1395/02/09 دسته بندی : زبان خارجه 0
دانلود مقاله به زبان انگلیسی با موضوع بررسی ادراک آموزگاران از تاثیر ایی ال تی ELT در موسسات زبان دولتی و خصوصی ایرانی Exploring Teachers’ Perception of the Efficacy of ELT in Iranian Public Schools and Private Language Institutes که شامل 7 صفحه میباشد  ، بشرح زیر است:
نوع فایل : Pdf

Abstract
This paper intended to compare teaching English in private language institutes and public schools in Iranian Education system from the viewpoint of the English teachers who practice in both systems. It also aimed at examining teachers’ preference to teach-in either place. 15 English teachers in Ilam city participated in the study and data were collected through a researcher-made questionnaire, including 60 Items through which respondents were asked to express their
dis/agreement on 5 subscales. The results showed that better management, better fulfillment of the educational needs, and better teaching environment were among the reasons why the teachers preferred to teach in private language institutes. The study then, provides suggestions for improvement of ELT in the public system

Keywords: ELT in Iran, public schools, private language institutes, teachers’ preferences

 Introduction
English is spoken by over 2 billion people around the world and the number of non-native speakers of English is 3 times as much as its native speakers almost all research and publications in the international level are performed in English (Crystal, 1997; Flowerdew and Peacock, 2001). Because of its undeniable importance, the need for English as a foreign language has made governments and education systems to reconsider their programs to meet their requirements. In this relation, no doubt, evaluation plays a significant role in improving programs. It helps knowing about strengths and
weaknesses of the program and, if necessary, making modifications and improvements in the curriculum. Owing to the existence of two systems of English language education in Iran, i.e. public education in state or private schools as a compulsory course and teaching of English in private language institutes, it was considered necessary to evaluate the teaching conditions in these places from the viewpoints of teachers who perform in both systems.


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خرید و دانلود فایل مکالمات موضوعی در زبان انگليسی علی حسینی نجف آبادی 1395/01/23 دسته بندی : زبان خارجه 1
يکی از اصلی ترين اھداف زبان برقراری ارتباط جھت انتقال اطلاعات عواطف و احساسات می باشد . در راستای نيل به
اين ھدف رويکرد به تعامل ھای گفتاری در حيطه ارتباطات اجتماعی از اھميتی ويژه برخوردار است . اھميت اين حوزه
از کاربرد زبان که به شکلی غير مستقيم با مولفه ھای جامعه شناسی زبان در ارتباط است با گسترش صنعت جھانگردی
بيش از گذشته نمايان شده است.
در اين کتاب الگوھای متونی که به شکل شفاھی در محاورات روزمره قابل مشاھده ھستند معرفی شده است . فراگيری اين
متون نه صرفا به عنوان ساختار ثابت بلکه به عنوان الگوی نمونه برای ساخت متن ھای شفاھی مشابه توصيه می شود ....
در ادامه با ما همراه باشید تا با پرداخت مبلغ ناچیز به بقیه مطالب ارزشمند این فایل دسترسی پیدا کنید.


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 نمایید  تا بتوانیم محصولات درخور شایسته دیگری به شما عزیزان ارائه بدهیم.

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دانلود پایان نامه ارشد مترجمی زبان انگلیسی با موضوع A generic framework for Arabic to English machine translation of simplex sentences using the Role and Reference Grammar linguistic model محمد .ا 1394/11/15 دسته بندی : زبان خارجه 0

دانلود پایان نامه ارشد مترجمی زبان انگلیسی با موضوع A generic framework for Arabic to English machine translation of simplex sentences using the Role and Reference Grammar linguistic model که شامل 191 صفحه و بشرح زیر میباشد:

نوع فایل : PDF قابل ویرایش

A generic framework for Arabic to English machine translation of simplex sentences using the Role and Reference Grammar linguistic model

Abstract
The aim of this research is to develop a rule-based lexical framework for Arabic language
processing using the Role and Reference Grammar linguistic model. A system, called
UniArab is introduced to support the framework. The UniArab system for Modern Standard
Arabic (MSA), which takes MSA Arabic as input in the native orthography, parses
the sentence(s) into a logical meta-representation, and using this, generates a grammatically
correct English output with full agreement and morphological resolution. UniArab
utilizes an XML-based implementation of elements of the Role and Reference Grammar
theory, and its representations for the universal logical structure of Arabic sentences.
Role and Reference Grammar (RRG) is a functional theory of grammar that posits a
direct mapping between the semantic representation of a sentence and its syntactic representation.
The theory allows a sentence in a specific language to be described in terms
of its logical structure and grammatical procedures. RRG creates a linking relationship
between syntax and semantics, and can account for how semantic representations are
mapped into syntactic representations. We claim that RRG is highly suitable for machine
translation of Arabic via an Interlingua bridge implementation model. RRG is a mono
strata–theory, positing only one level of syntactic representation, the actual form of the
sentence and its linking algorithm can work in both directions from syntactic representation
to semantic representation, or vice versa. In RRG, semantic decomposition of predicates
and their semantic argument structures are represented as logical structures. The
lexicon in RRG takes the position that lexical entries for verbs should contain unique information
only, with as much information as possible derived from general lexical rules.
For this reason and due to the functional nature of our linguistic model, we will create
our own lexicon.
We use the RRG theory to motivate the architecture of the lexicon and the RRG bidirectional
linking system to design and implement the parse and generate functions between
the syntax-semantic interfaces. Through an input process with seven phases, including
morphological and syntactic unpacking, UniArab extracts the universal logical structure
of an Arabic sentence. Using the XML based metadata representing the RRG logical
structure (XRRG), UniArab accurately generates an equivalent grammatical sentence in
the target language through four output phases. We outline the conceptual structure of
the UniArab System which utilizes the framework and translates the Arabic language
into another natural language. We follow the Interlingua design approach for machine
translation. We analyse the Arabic sentences to create a universal, abstract logical representation,
and from this representation we generate English translations.
We also explore how the characteristics of the Arabic language will affect the development
of a Machine Translation (MT) tool. Several characteristics of Arabic pertinent
to MT will be explored in detail with reference to some potential difficulties that they
present. We will conclude with a proposed model incorporating the Role and Reference
Grammar techniques to achieve this end. The UniArab system has been tested by generating
equivalent grammatical sentences, in English, via the universal logical structure of
Arabic sentences, based on MSA Arabic input with very significant and accurate results.
It provides more accurate translations when compared with automated translators from
Google and Microsoft though these systems have a much wider coverage than UniArab
at present. The free word order nature of Arabic and the challenges of incorporating transitivity
into the logical structure will be outlined in detail. This research demonstrates the
capabilities of the Role and Reference Grammar as a base for multilingual translation
systems.

Contents
Abstract iii
Declaration iv
Acknowledgements vi
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation...... 4
1.2 Goals..... 4
1.3 Technologies...... 5
1.4 Thesis organization... 6
2 The Arabic Language 8
2.1 Characteristics of the Arabic language.... 9
2.2 Characteristics of Arabic words.. 11
2.2.1 Free word order.... 12
2.3 Part of speech inventory of the Arabic language.... 14
2.3.1 Noun...... 14
2.3.1.1 Definite nouns.. 15
CONTENTS
2.3.1.2 Indefinite nouns.... 16
2.3.2 Adjectives..... 16
2.3.3 Adverbs.....16
2.3.4 Verbs...... 17
2.3.4.1 Verb tenses.. 17
2.3.4.2 Aspect.. 19
2.3.4.3 Mood.... 19
2.3.4.4 Voice.... 20
2.3.4.5 Transitivity.. 20
2.3.5 Demonstratives.... 21
2.3.6 Others...... 21
2.4 Sentence types in Arabic.. 22
2.4.1 Equational sentences.. 22
2.4.1.1 Verb and noun.. 23
2.4.1.2 Verb and two nouns.... 23
2.4.1.3 Verb and three nouns.. 24
2.4.1.4 Verb and four nouns.... 24
2.4.2 The Verbal Sentence.. 24
2.4.3 Clause...... 25
2.5 Summary...... 25
3 Role and Reference Grammar (RRG) 27
3.1 Role and Reference Grammar linguistic model.. 28
3.2 Formal representation of layered structure of the clause... 31
3.2.1 Representing the universal aspects of the layered structure of the
clause...... 31
3.2.2 Layered structure of the clause (LSC).. 32
CONTENTS
3.2.3 Non-universal aspects of the layered structure of the clause..32
3.3 Noun phrase structure....36
3.3.1 NP headed... 38
3.4 Lexical representations for verbs.. 38
3.4.1 Agents, effectors, instruments and forces.. 39
3.4.2 change of state verb.. 40
3.5 Why we use RRG as the linguistic model... 41
3.5.1 RRG representing the universal aspects of the layered structure
of the clause....42
3.5.2 The lexical representation of verbs and their arguments..43
3.6 Summary...... 44
4 Machine translation strategies 46
4.1 Advantages of machine translation.... 47
4.2 Computational techniques in MT.. 47
4.2.1 System design.... 48
4.2.2 Interactive systems.... 48
4.2.3 Lexical databases.. 49
4.2.4 Tokens and tokenization.. 49
4.2.5 Syntactic analysis (Parsing).. 50
4.3 Basic machine translation strategies.. 50
4.3.1 Multilingual versus bilingual systems.. 50
4.3.2 Direct translation.. 51
4.3.3 Interlingua... 52
4.3.4 Transfer systems.. 53
4.3.5 Statistical machine translation.... 56
4.4 Linguistic aspects of MT.. 56
CONTENTS
4.4.1 Non-Roman alphabet scripts.. 57
4.4.2 Lexical ambiguity.... 57
4.4.2.1 Category ambiguity.... 57
4.4.2.2 Homograph.... 58
4.4.3 Syntactic ambiguity.. 58
4.4.4 Structural differences.. 60
4.5 Challenges of Arabic to English MT.. 60
4.6 Generation...... 62
4.6.1 Generation in direct systems.. 62
4.6.2 Generation in transfer-based systems.. 63
4.6.3 Generation in interlingua systems... 64
4.7 Summary...... 65
5 Design of Arabic to English machine translation system based on RRG 67
5.1 UniArab: Interlingua-based system.... 68
5.2 Designing an XML lexicon architecture for Arabic MT based on RRG..69
5.2.1 An XML-based lexicon.... 70
5.2.2 Lexical representation in UniArab... 70
5.2.3 Lexical properties.. 71
5.3 Design of test strategy.... 74
5.4 Design of evaluation criteria.. 77
5.5 Summary...... 78
6 UniArab: a proof-of-concept Arabic to English machine translation system 79
6.1 Conceptual structure of the UniArab system.... 80
6.1.1 Technical architecture of the UniArab system.....81
6.1.2 UniArab: Lexical representation in interlingua system... 84
CONTENTS
6.2 UniArab: Lexical representation in interlingua system based on RRG..86
6.2.1 Verb.....86
6.2.2 Common noun.... 88
6.2.3 Proper noun... 88
6.2.4 Adjective..... 89
6.2.5 Demonstrative.... 90
6.2.6 Adverb.....91
6.2.7 Other Arabic words.... 92
6.3 UniArab: Generation....92
6.4 UniArab: Screen design.... 94
6.4.1 Lexicon interface.. 97
6.5 Technical challenges....98
6.6 Summary...... 99
7 Testing and evaluation 100
7.1 Evaluation of MT systems.... 100
7.2 Sentence tests...... 101
7.2.1 Verb-Subject with one argument in different tenses..102
7.2.2 Gender-ambiguous proper nouns.. 106
7.2.3 Verb ‘to be’... 108
7.2.4 Verb ‘to have’....110
7.2.5 Free word order.... 112
7.2.6 Pro-drop..... 115
7.2.7 Transitivity of verbs.. 116
7.2.7.1 Intransitive.. 116
7.2.7.2 Transitive.. 118
7.2.7.3 Ditransitive.... 119
CONTENTS
7.2.8 Limitation of UniArab.... 122
7.3 System evaluation..... 125
7.4 Summary...... 128
8 Conclusion 129
8.1 Thesis summary.....131
8.2 Summary of thesis contributions.. 132
8.3 Future work.....133
References 134
Appendix 140
A The author’s publications related to this research 140
B Buckwalter Arabic transliteration 142
C List of translatable sentences 145
D Verbs in lexicon 161
E The UniArab code 170
List of Figures
2.1 A classification for the Arabic language syntax.... 14
2.2 A classification of clauses in the Arabic language.. 22
3.1 Layout of Role and Reference Grammar.. 29
3.2 Arabic sentence types; verb subject object or subject verb object (for
gloss please see example 3.1).. 30
3.3 Formal representation of the layered structure of the clause...31
3.4 English Sentence with precore slot and left-detached position... 33
3.5 Operator projection in LSC.... 34
3.6 LSC with constituent and operator projections.. 35
3.7 Arabic LSC.....36
3.8 The RRG representing the universal aspects of the layered structure of
the clause (Van Valin and LaPolla 1997).. 42
4.1 Direct MT system... 51
4.2 Interlingua1 model with eight languages pairs.. 52
4.3 Multilinguality transfer model with eight languages pairs.. 54
LIST OF FIGURES
4.4 Difference between direct, transfer, and interlinguaMT models, (Trujillo 1999) 55
4.5 NP rule (NP –> det n pp).. 59
4.6 PP is attached at a higher level.... 59
4.7 Direct MT system... 63
4.8 Semantic generation... 64
4.9 Structure to be generated.. 65
4.10 Interlingua model of Arabic MT.. 66
5.1 The conceptual architecture of the UniArab system.. .. 68
5.2 Information recorded in the UniArab lexicon.. 72
6.1 Layout of Role and Reference Grammar.. 79
6.2 The conceptual architecture of the UniArab system.....80
6.3 Generation the right tense for the verbs.... 84
6.4 Information recorded on the Arabic verb.. 87
6.5 Information recorded on the Arabic noun... 88
6.6 Information recorded on the Arabic proper noun.... 89
6.7 Information recorded on the Arabic adjective.. 90
6.8 Information recorded on the Arabic demonstrative......91
6.9 Information recorded on the Arabic adverb.. 91
6.10 Information recorded on the other Arabic words.... 92
6.11 UniArab’s GUI 1..... 95
6.12 UniArab’s GUI 2..... 96
6.13 UniArab’s GUI 3..... 97
6.14 UniArab’s lexicon interface.... 98
7.1 Verb-Subject with one argument.. 102
LIST OF FIGURES
7.2 Verb-Subject with one argument.. 103
7.3 Verb-subject agreement 1.. 104
7.4 Verb-subject agreement 2.. 105
7.5 Gender-ambiguous proper nouns 1.... 106
7.6 Gender-ambiguous proper nouns 2.... 107
7.7 Verb ‘to be’ 1...... 108
7.8 Verb ‘to be’ 2...... 109
7.9 Verb ‘to have’ 1.....110
7.10 Verb ‘to have’ 2.....111
7.11 Free word order (Verb Noun Noun scenario one).. 112
7.12 Free word order (Verb Noun Noun scenario two).. 113
7.13 Free word order (Verb Noun Noun scenario three).. 114
7.14 Pro-drop........ 115
7.15 Intransitive.....116
7.16 Intransitive with an adverb.... 117
7.17 Transitive...... 118
7.18 Ditransitive 1...... 119
7.19 Ditransitive with 2 NP.... 120
7.20 Ditransitive with preposition.. 121
7.21 Limitation of UniArab 1.. 122
7.22 Limitation of UniArab 2.. 123
7.23 Limitation of UniArab 3.. 124
List of Tables
2.1 Dual: merely add two letters to achieve dual form in Arabic.. 10
2.2 Grammatical gender....11
2.3 Feminine is different than masculine.. 12
2.4 Feminine and masculine in Arabic.... 12
2.5 Definiteness in Arabic.... 12
2.6 Definiteness example in Arabic.. 12
2.7 Free word order.....13
2.8 Noun example in Arabic.. 15
2.9 Definite example in Arabic.... 15
2.10 Indefinite example in Arabic.. 16
2.11 Arabic adjective..... 16
2.12 Arabic adverb...... 16
2.13 Imperfect tense 
2.14 Perfect tense... 17
2.15 Imperfect inflectional forms of word ‘write’.... 18
2.16 Perfect inflectional forms of word ‘wrote’... 18
2.17 Future tense in Arabic.... 18
LIST OF TABLES
2.18 Indicative mood..... 19
2.19 Subjunctive mood... 19
2.20 Jussive mood...... 19
2.21 Imperative mood..... 20
2.22 Particle ‘Lan’...... 21
2.23 Nominal sentence..... 23
2.24 Kan and its sisters wth¯a.... 23
2.25 zanna and its sisters wth¯a.... 24
2.26 Informed and showed....24
2.27 verb(V), subject(S) and object(O).... 25
2.28 subject(S), verb(V) and object(O).... 25
2.29 verb(V), object(O) and subject(S).... 25
2.30 Two simple clauses by subordinating conjunction.. 25
3.1 Relationships between the semantic and syntactic units... 32
3.2 Lexical representations for the basic Aktionsart classes... 38
4.1 Modules required in an all-pairs multilingual transfer system.. 54
4.2 Derived words from a three-letter-root in Arabic.. 61
5.1 Verb 1..... 73
5.2 Verb 2..... 74
5.3 Test strategy: verb-subject agreement.... 75
5.4 Test strategy: demonstrative adjective-noun agreement... 75
5.5 Test strategy: gender-ambiguous proper nouns.... 75
5.6 Test strategy: verb ‘to be’.... 76
5.7 Test strategy: verb ‘to have’.. 76
5.8 Test strategy: free word order (Verb Noun Noun).. 77
xvii
LIST OF TABLES
5.9 Test strategy: pro–drop.... 77
6.1 Verb 1..... 87
6.2 Verb 2..... 87
6.3 Noun..... 88
6.4 Proper Noun...... 89
6.5 Adjective...... 89
6.6 Demonstrative representative.. 90
6.7 Adverb........ 91
6.8 Other Arabic words (where ‘NON’ means not applicable).... 92
7.1 Test : Verb-Subject; one argument.... 102
7.2 Test : Verb-subject; agreement 1.. 103
7.3 Test : verb-subject; agreement 2.. 104
7.4 Test : Gender-ambiguous proper nouns 1... 106
7.5 Test : gender-ambiguous proper nouns 2.. 107
7.6 Test : Verb ‘to be’ 1....108
7.7 Test : Verb ‘to be’ 2....109
7.8 Test : Verb ‘to have’ 1.... 110
7.9 Test : Verb ‘to have’ 2.... 111
7.10 Test : Free word order (Verb Noun Noun scenario one)... 112
7.11 Test : Free word order (Verb Noun Noun scenario two)... 113
7.12 Test : Free word order (Verb Noun Noun scenario three)..114
7.13 Test: Pro-drop.....115
7.14 Test : Intransitive 1... 116
7.15 Test : Intransitive 2... 117
7.16 Test : Transitive..... 118
LIST OF TABLES
7.17 Test : Ditransitive 1... 119
7.18 Test : Ditransitive with 2 NP.. 120
7.19 Test : Ditransitive with preposition.. 121
7.20 Test : Limitation of UniArab.. 122
7.21 Test : Limitation of UniArab 3 using non existing nonsense word..124


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AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE USE OF ARGUMENT STRUCTURE AND LEXICAL MAPPING THEORY FOR MACHINE TRANSLATION
Abstract
In recent work on the Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG) formalism, argument
structure (a-structure) and lexical mapping theory have been used to explain many
linguistic behaviours across languages. It has been suggested that the combination
of c-structure, f-structure and a-structure might form a suitable architecture
for Universal Grammar. If this suggestion is valid, the LFG formalism would be a
suitable linguistic model for Machine Translation (MT). This thesis reports on the
investigations carried out on using a-structure and lexical mapping theory for aiding
various sub-tasks in MT. The two investigations described in this thesis are the
abilities of a-structure and lexical mapping theory to: (1) aid different kinds of lexical
and structural disambiguations involving verbs and prepositions, and (2) act
as a suitable medium for carrying out source-to-target language transfer. Based
on the results of these investigations, this thesis also gives an evaluation of how
well a-structure and lexical mapping theory can improve the existing models of
linguistic-based MT.

Contents
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Problems of Machine Translation ... 3
1.1.1 Why are problems in MT vital to the application of real-life MT systems? 3
1.1.2 What makes MT so difficult? .... 4
1.1.3 Linguistic Problems ....5
1.1.4 Meaning Representation .... 7
1.2 Motivation and Aims of the Research ...8
1.3 Organisation of this Thesis ... 10
2 Machine Translation 12
2.1 Different Kinds of Ambiguities .... 13
2.1.1 Lexical Ambiguity ... 13
2.1.2 Structural Ambiguity ....14
2.2 Different Kinds of MT Systems .... 15
2.2.1 Direct MT systems ... 15
2.2.2 Indirect MT Systems ....16
2.3 Practical Use of some MT Systems ..... 18
2.3.1 Systran ..... 18
2.3.2 M´et´eo ..... 20
2.3.3 Discussion ...21
2.4 Methods of Transfer ..... 22
2.5 Alternative Approaches to Machine Translation .... 24
2.5.1 Sublanguage Approach .... 25
2.5.2 Statistics-based Approach ... 27
2.5.3 Example-based Approach ... 28
2.6 Conclusion .....29
3 Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG) 32
3.1 The LFG Formalism ..... 33
3.1.1 Constituent Structure (c-structure) ... 34
3.1.2 Functional Structure (f-structure) ... 35
3.1.3 Semantic Structure (s-structure) ...41
3.2 Lexical-Functional Grammar in Machine Translation ... 43
3.2.1 Kudo and Nomura’s Lexical-Functional Transfer .... 44
3.2.2 Kaplan et al.’s approach to MT ...45
3.2.3 Her et al.’s Lexical and Idiomatic Transfer .... 47
3.3 Conclusion .....51
4 Argument Structure and Lexical Mapping Theory 54
4.1 Thematic Roles .... 55
4.1.1 Agent ..... 56
4.1.2 Beneficiary, Recipient and Experiencer ..... 57
4.1.3 Instrument ...61
4.1.4 Theme and Patient ... 61
4.1.5 Locative .... 64
4.2 Argument Structure ..... 66
4.2.1 How to establish the a-structure(s) for a verb? ..67
4.3 Lexical Mapping Theory .... 69
4.3.1 Thematic Hierarchy ....69
4.3.2 Classification of Syntactic Functions .. 70
4.3.3 Lexical Mapping Principles ..... 71
4.3.4 Well-formedness Conditions .... 76
4.4 Lexical Mapping— A Demonstration ...76
4.4.1 With the Verb ‘give’ ....76
4.4.2 With the Morpholexical Operation ‘passive’ ... 78
4.4.3 With the Morpholexical Operation ‘applicative’ .... 78
4.5 Is A-structure another variant of Case Grammar? .... 79
4.5.1 Case Grammar .... 80
4.5.2 A-structure and Case Grammar — A Comparison ...81
4.6 Conclusion .....83
5 Using A-structure and Lexical Mapping Theory for MT 84
5.1 Parsing Source Language Sentence ..... 84
5.1.1 Differentiating V + PP from Phrasal Verb + NP ..86
5.1.2 Differentiating NP with N and PP from NP + PP .... 92
5.2 Lexical Selection .... 96
5.2.1 Lexical Selection for Ergative Verbs .. 98
5.2.2 Lexical Selection for Verbs ... 101
5.2.3 Lexical Selection for Phrasal Verbs ... 106
5.3 Aiding Sentence Generation ....108
5.3.1 Verb Copying in Chinese ... 109
5.3.2 Positioning PPs within a Chinese Sentence .... 111
5.4 Discussion .....114
5.5 Conclusion .....117
6 Dealing with the Transfer of Passive Sentences 119
6.1 Using F-structure as a medium for Transfer .. 119
6.2 Passive in English ...122
6.3 Passive in Chinese ..... 126
6.4 Differences between Passive Sentences in English and in Chinese ... 129
6.5 The Transfer from English passive sentences to Chinese .... 133
6.6 Discussion .....136
6.7 Conclusion .....140
7 Conclusion and FutureWork 141
7.1 Problems in Using A-structure and Lexical Mapping Theory inMT .... 141
7.1.1 No Matching Source-and-Target Language A-structures ...142
7.1.2 Difficulty in Establishing Appropriate A-structures ... 144
7.2 What makes this investigation successful? ... 147
7.3 FutureWork ..... 148
7.3.1 Disambiguating nouns .... 149
7.3.2 Automatic extraction of a-structures from a corpus ... 150
7.3.3 Reducing the processing time .... 150
7.4 Conclusion .....151

List of Figures
1.1 A Word-for-Word Translation .... 4
2.1 Typical building blocks of a transfer-based MT system ..17
2.2 Building blocks of an interlingual MT system ..... 17
2.3 Building blocks of a multilingual MT system using the interlingual approach .. 18
2.4 A dictionary entry for transferring ‘bug’ suggested by Her et al. (1994) .... 26
3.1 C-structure for the sentence “John played Mary a tune on the violin.” ... 34
3.2 F-structure for the sentence “John tried to play the guitar.” .... 36
3.3 F-structure for the sentence “John played Mary a tune on the violin.” ... 38
3.4 C-structure and F-structure for the sentence “John died.” .... 41
3.5 C-structure & F-structure correspondence of the sentence “John died.” .. 42
3.6 S-structure for the sentence “The baby fell.” ... 42
3.7 C-structure, F-structure and S-structure correspondence of the sentence “John died.” 44
3.8 The correspondences between different structures for source and target languages inLFG ....... 46
3.9 A minimal f-structure for transferring the idiom “to kick the bucket” suggested by Her et al. (1994) ..... 50
5.1 Two potential c-structures for the word sequence “John played on words” ... 85
5.2 F-structure for “John played on words.” ... 89
5.3 F-structure for “John played on the table.” ... 89
5.4 The lexical mapping between a-structure arguments and their corresponding syntactic functions for the sentences in Table 5.1 .... 92
5.5 A possible c-structure for “John bought a book in a bookshop in Prague.” produced
by a syntax-based parser.... 93
5.6 Another possible c-structure for “John bought a book in a bookshop in Prague.” produced by a parser.... 94
5.7 The c-structure for “John saw a girl with a dog with a telescope.” ... 96
5.8 Examples of English ergative verbs with matching Chinese counterpart ... 99
5.9 Examples of English ergative verbs with different Chinese translation in transitive and intransitive cases ... 100
5.10 A-structures and sample sentences for the English verb ‘tell’ and its Chinese counterparts ..... 102
5.11 The use of a-structures for lexical selection .. 103
5.12 Some examples on lexical selection for verbs by using a-structures ... 105
6.1 English and Chinese F-structures for “Mary was killed by John.”...130
6.2 English and Chinese F-structures for “Mary was killed.”.... 131
6.3 The English and Chinese equivalents of the sentence “Mary was given a book by John” .... 132
6.4 Skeleton of Chinese F-structure for “Mary was given a book by John.”.. 135
6.5 The final Chinese F-structure for “Mary was given a book by John.”... 136
6.6 Transferring English passive sentence into Chinese using a-structure and lexical
mapping theory .... 137

List of Tables
1.1 Different meanings of some nouns ..... 7
3.1 Different cases for the Czech proper noun ‘Jan’ ....40
5.1 Some examples of different combinations of verbs and prepositions ... 88
5.2 Different Meanings of ‘look up’ .... 107
5.3 The a-structure arguments for ‘look up’ and its Chinese equivalents ... 108


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دانلود پایان نامه دکترا به زبان انگلیسی با موضوع Lexical semantics and knowledge representation in multilingual sentence generation که شامل 170 صفحه و بشرح زیر میباشد:

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Abstract
Lexical semantics and knowledge representation in multilingual sentence generation
Manfred Stede
Doctor of Philosophy Graduate Department of Computer Science University of Toronto 1996
This thesis develops a new approach to automatic language generation that focuses on the need
to produce a range of di erent paraphrases from the same input representation. One novelty of
the system is its solidly grounding representations of word meaning in a background knowledge
base, which enables the production of paraphrases stemming from certain inferences, rather
than from purely lexical relationships alone.
The system is designed in such a way that the paraphrasing mechanism extends naturally to
a multilingual generator; specifically, we will be concerned with producing English and German
sentences. The focus of the system is on lexical paraphrases, and one of the contributions of the
thesis is in identifying, analyzing and extending relevant linguistic research so that it can be
used to handle the problems of lexical semantics in a language generation system. The lexical
entries are more complex than in previous generators, and they separate the various aspects
of word meaning, so that di erent ways of paraphrasing can be systematically related to the
di erent motivations for saying a sentence in a particular way. One result of accounting for
lexical semantics in this fashion is a formalization of a number of verb alternations, for which
a generative treatment is given.
While the actual choice of one paraphrase as the best-suited utterance in a given situation is
not a focal point of the thesis, two dimensions of preferring a variant of a sentence are discussed:
that of assigning salience to the di erent elements of the sentence, and that of connotational or
stylistic features of the utterance. These dimensions are integrated into the system, and it can
thus determine a preferred paraphrase from a set of alternatives.
To demonstrate the feasibility of the approach, the proposed generation architecture has
been implemented as a protoype, along with a domain model that serves as the background
knowledge base for specifying the input to the generator. A range of generated examples is
...presented to show the functionality of the system

Contents
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Natural language generation . 1
1.2 Background: the TECHDOC generator . 3
1.3 Goals of this research .. 4
1.4 Overview of the research and its results . 5
1.5 Organization of the thesis . : 10
2 Lexicalization in NLG 12
2.1 Introduction .. 12
2.2 The nature of lexical items in NLP. 13
2.3 Criteria for lexical choice . : 14
2.3.1 Salience .. : 15
2.3.2 Pragmatics and style . 16
2.4 Linking concepts to lexical items. : 17
2.4.1 Discrimination nets . 17
2.4.2 Taxonomic knowledge bases and the lexicon.. 18
2.5 Placing lexicalization in the generation process . : 20
2.5.1 Lexical and other choices. : 20
2.5.2 PENMAN .. 21
2.6 Multilingual generation .. 23
2.7 Conclusions: making progress on lexicalization . : 23
3 Lexical semantics 27
3.1 Introduction .. 27
3.2 Relational theories of word meaning .. 28
3.3 Decomposition .. : 29
3.4 Denotation versus connotation.. 31
3.5 Two-level semantics .. 32
3.6 Aspect and Aktionsart .. 34
3.7 Valency and case frames .. 36
3.8 Verb alternations .. 37
3.9 Salience . . 39
3.10 Conclusions: word meaning in NLG .. 41
4 Classifying lexical variation 44
4.1 Intra-lingual paraphrases .. 44
4.2 Inter-lingual divergences .. 47
4.3 Divergences as paraphrases . 49
5 Modelling the domain 51
5.1 Building domain models for NLG. : 51
5.2 Background: knowledge representation in LOOM . 53
5.3 Ontological categories in our system .. 54
5.4 A domain model for containers and liquids . : 58
5.4.1 Objects .. : 60
5.4.2 Qualities .. 60
5.4.3 States ... 60
5.4.4 Activities .. 65
5.4.5 Events ... 65
6 Levels of representation: SitSpec and SemSpec 67
6.1 Finding appropriate levels of representation in NLG. : 67
6.1.1 Decision-making in sentence generation . : 68
6.1.2 A two-level approach . 70
6.2 Linguistic ontology: adapting the 'Upper Model' . 72
6.3 SitSpecs . . 75
6.4 SemSpecs .. : 78
7 Representing the meaning of words: a new synthesis 81
7.1 Denotation and covering .. 81
7.1.1 SitSpec templates . : 82
7.1.2 Covering .. : 85
7.1.3 Aktionsart .. : 86
7.2 Partial SemSpecs .. 87
7.2.1 Lexico-semantic combinations .. 87
7.2.2 Type shifting .. 89
7.2.3 Valency and the Upper Model .. 90
7.3 Alternations and extensions . 93
7.3.1 Alternations as meaning extensions . : 93
7.3.2 Lexical rules for alternations and extensions.. 95
7.3.3 Extension rules for circumstances . 101
7.3.4 Examples: lexical entries for verbs . : 102
7.3.5 Summary .. 104
7.4 Salience . . 105
7.5 Connotation .. 107
7.6 Summary: lexicalization with constraints and preferences .. 110
8 A new system architecture for multilingual generation 113
8.1 The computational problem . 113
8.2 Overview of the architecture . 115
8.2.1 Find lexical options . 115
8.2.2 Construct alternations and extensions .. 118
8.2.3 Establish preference ranking of options .. 119
8.2.4 Determine the complete and preferred SemSpec. 120
8.2.5 Generate sentence . : 122
8.3 Implementation of a prototype: MOOSE . 123
8.4 Embedding MOOSE in larger applications . : 125
9 Generating paraphrases 127
9.1 Verbalizing states .. 127
9.1.1 Binary states .. 127
9.1.2 Ternary states .. 128
9.2 Verbalizing activities .. 130
9.3 Verbalizing events .. : 132
9.4 Solutions to lexicalization problems. 138
10 Summary and conclusions 141
10.1 Summary of the work .. 141
10.2 Comparison to related work . 144
10.2.1 The role of the lexicon in NLG . : 144
10.2.2 Word{concept linking.. 144
10.2.3 Fine-grained lexical choices. 146
10.2.4 Paraphrasing .. 146
10.2.5 Event verbalization . : 148
10.2.6 Multilinguality and the lexicon . : 149
10.3 Contributions of the thesis . : 151
10.3.1 Lexical semantics for NLG. : 151
10.3.2 System architecture for NLG .. 152
10.3.3 Implementation .. 153
10.4 Directions for future research.. 153
Bibliography 156

List of Figures
1.1 Example of SitSpec: Jill filling a tank with water.. 6
1.2 Examples of SemSpecs and corresponding English sentences.. : 6
2.1 Lexicalization with 'zoom schemata' (from [Horacek 1990b]).. : 19
2.2 Small excerpt from Upper Model .. : : : 22
3.1 Taxonomy of eventualities from Bach [1986].. 35
5.1 Sample text from a Honda car manual .. 52
5.2 The top level of our ontology .. .. 55
5.3 Our classification of situation types .. : : 56
5.4 Event representation for Jill opening a wine bottle .. 57
5.5 LOOM definitions for basic ontological categories.. 59
5.6 Taxonomy of states .... : 61
5.7 LOOM definitions of binary-states .. : 62
5.8 LOOM definition of location-state .. 63
5.9 Subsumption of concepts and relations for ternary-states.. : 64
5.10 LOOM definition of path .... 65
5.11 Opening the wine bottle as transition.. : : 66
6.1 Representation levels in the generation system.. : 72
6.2 Syntax of SitSpecs .... 76
6.3 Example of situation specification as graph.. 77
6.4 Syntax of SemSpecs .... : 78
6.5 Semantic specifications and corresponding sentences .. 79
7.1 Syntax of a lexeme denotation .. .. 84
7.2 Syntax of partial SemSpecs .. .. 88
7.3 Example for type shifting .... 89
7.4 SitSpecs for sentences corresponding to configurations of to spray.. 98
7.5 Dependency of extension rules .. .. 100
7.6 Derivation of drain-configurations by extension rules .. 101
7.7 Sample lexical entries (abridged) for verbs.. : 103
8.1 Overall system architecture .. .. 116
8.2 Lexicon entries matching the SitSpec in fill{example, and their instantiations : : 118
8.3 Extension rules for fill{example, and resulting vos.. 119
8.4 The procedure for building SemSpecs (simplified).. 121
8.5 Screendump of Moose .... 124
9.1 SitSpec for water dripping from tank .. : 130
9.2 SitSpec for water rising in a tank .. : : : 132
9.3 SitSpec for Tom disconnecting the wire.. : : 134
9.4 SitSpec for Jill uncorking the bottle .. : 136
10.1 Lexicon entry for to require from ADVISOR II.. : 147
10.2 Sample CLCS and lexicon entries (abridged) from [Dorr 1993, pp. 224, 227] : : : 149


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Translating Idiomatic Expressions from English into Arabic

Table of Contents
Chapter
Subject
Page
Thesis Title 0
Authorization i
Thesis Committee Decision ii
Acknowledgments iii
Dedication v
Table of contents vi
List of Tables x
List of Appendices xi
English Abstract xii
Arabic Abstract xv
Chapter One
Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 6
1.3 Objectives of the Study 6
1.4 Questions of the Study 6
1.5 Significance of the Study 7
1.6 Limitations of the Study 8
1.7 Definition of Terms 8
Chapter Two
Review of Related Literature 9
2.0 Introduction 9
2.1 Review of Theoretical Literature 9
2.1.1 Translation, Culture and Types of Idiomatic Expressions 9
2.1.2 Difficulties Encountered in Translating Idiomatic Expressions 16
2.1.3 Techniques and Strategies Used in Translating Idiomatic Expressions 20
2.2 Empirical Studies 25
2.2.1 Studies Related to Cultural and Idiomatic Expressions, and Other Difficulties in Translation 26
2.2.2 Studies Related to Strategies and Techniques for Translating Idiomatic Expressions 32
Chapter Three
Methods and Procedures 35
3.0 Introduction 35
3.1 Population and Sample of the Study 35
3.2 Instruments of the Study 37
3.2.1 Translation Test 37
3.2.2 Interviews 39
3.3 Validity and Reliability of the Instruments 39
3.3.1 Validity of the Instruments 39
3.3.2 Reliability of the Instruments 40
3.4 Data Collection and Statistical Analysis 40
3.5 Procedures 41
Chapter Four
Results of the Study 43
4.0 Introduction 43
4.1 Results Related to the First Question 43
4.2 Views of Students and Translation Experts about the Major Challenges that M.A Students Encountered in Translating Idiomatic Expressions 63
4.3 Results Related to the Second Question 68
4.4 Results Related to the Third Question 71
Chapter Five
Discussion and Recommendations 75
5.0 Introduction 75
5.1 Discussion Related to the Findings of the First Question 75
5.2 Discussion Related to the Findings of the Second Question 79
5.3 Discussion Related to the Findings of the Third Question 82
5.4 Conclusions 84
5.5 Recommendations 86
5.6 Suggestions for future research 88
References 89
Appendices (A-H)

List of Tables Number Title Page Table 1
Demographic Characteristics of the Sample 36 Table 2
Participants’ Translation Performance in the English-Arabic Test 44
List of Appendices
Appendix
Title
Page
Appendix A
MEU Letter of Permission 95
Appendix B
Interviewed Experts 96
Appendix C
Validation Committee 97
Appendix D
The Validation Letter 98
Appendix E
Demographic Data Questionnaire 99
Appendix F
English-Arabic Translation Test 100
Appendix G
Semi- Structured Interview Questions for Experts 106
Appendix H
Semi- Structured Interview Questions for M.A Students 107

Abstract
This study aimed at investigating the challenges that M.A students encounter when translating idiomatic expressions. Particularly, it aimed at answering the following questions:
1- What are the major challenges that M.A students encounter in translating idiomatic expressions?
2- What factors cause such challenges?
3- What recommendations can be suggested to handle these challenges?
To achieve the goal of this study, the researcher selected a purposive sample that comprised 40 M.A students who were enrolled in the M.A program in two Jordanian Universities (i.e. Middle East University and Petra University)
during the second semester 2013/2014. The researcher designed a translation test that consisted of 20 statements which M.A students were asked to translate from English to Arabic. Each statement contained an idiomatic expression based on O'Dell and McCarthy's (2010) categorization of idioms namely: proverbs, metaphors, similes, and binomials. These statements represented different fields i.e. social, sports, scientific, media, educational, economic, political, and business. The researcher also conducted semi-structured interviews with students and experts in the field of translation to compile more information.
The results revealed that M.A students encounter different kinds of challenges when translating idiomatic expressions. These challenges are mostly related to inability to find a target language equivalent and unawareness of pragmatic, formal and semantic characteristics of idiomatic expressions, unawareness of the cultural differences between English and Arabic and unawareness of idioms’ categorization namely (proverbs, metaphor, similes and binomials).
Students and experts elaborated on the factors behind these challenges and through their answers it is clear that lack of awareness in the source language cultural patterns (traditions, habits, customs, ceremonies,
entertainments and social patterns and religious background), unawareness of the cultural differences, misusing the appropriate technique and the tendency to use literal translation that is in most cases not successful, using the paraphrasing technique rather than giving the target language equivalent and the use of idiomatic expressions in colloquial rather than standard language are the main reasons behind the failure in translating idiomatic expressions .


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دانلود پایان نامه ارشد مترجمی زبان انگلیسی با موضوع The Role of Translation in the Production of International Print News محمد .ا 1394/11/14 دسته بندی : زبان خارجه 0

دانلود پایان نامه ارشد مترجمی زبان انگلیسی با موضوع The Role of Translation in the Production of International Print News که شامل 247 صفحه و بشرح زیر میباشد:

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The Role of Translation in the Production of International Print News
Three Case Studies in the Language Direction Spanish to English
Abstract
Translation has become a key, albeit hidden factor in the success of international news as a
marketable commodity and one that is not overtly recognised by journalists. However,
despite the important socio-political role played by translation in the global circulation of
news, general principles governing processes of translation in its production have received
scant attention from both Media and Translation Studies researchers
The core to this study is to explore the complex set of processes that occur in the
translation of political news, and to discover what exactly happens at various points in regard
to who translates, what is translated, where it is translated and by whom it is translated. A
further goal is to ascertain the extent to which trained competent translators are involved, as
opposed to linguistically competent journalists, or, if that is not the case, whether indeed the
former should be involved in processes of news translation.
From a translation perspective the study explores the practice of newswriters
complying with common journalistic strategies such as simplification and reframing to suit
the needs of their readership for the maintenance of dominant political or cultural ideologies.
It also examines the extent to which disregard for, and removal from, original context, as well
as over- or under-emphasis of particular terms or phrases actually happens in translated news
texts in the Spanish-English context, and the effect that this may have at the point of
reception by the new readership.
By comparing three sub-corpora of journalistic source and target texts through critical
discourse analysis, and by taking into account translation processes through ethnographic
research in international news outlets, the ultimate goal is to identify the causes that can
trigger textual manipulation. Using three case studies comprising political news events that
were originally reported in Spanish at the source of the events, and which were subsequently
reported in UK and US national newspapers, the study investigates the extent to which
transformations occur through translation in the representation of political news events, how
they might occur, who is involved in the process and what effect any transformations might
have on readers.


Table of Contents
Introduction
1.1 Aims, Rationale and Relevance of this Study 4
1.2 Methodological Framework 7
1.3 Research Questions 9
1.4 Chapter Outline 13
2.1 News Translation in Translation Studies – a Theoretical Framework 17
2.1.1 Functionalist Approaches 20
2.1.2 The “Cultural Turn” in Translation Studies 24
2.1.3 Lefevere’s Theory of Rewriting 27
2.1.4 Descriptive Translation Studies 30
2.1.5 Defining ‘News Translation’ 34
2.2 Globalisation and the Media 41
2.2.1 News Agencies as Agents of Globalisation 41
2.2.2 Transparency versus Invisibility 44
2.2.3 Homogeneity and Diversity in the Circulation of News 46
2.3 Translation in the Production of International News 51
2.3.1 The News Gathering and Dissemination Process 52
2.3.2 Translation and the Translator in News Gathering and Dissemination 58
2.3.3 The Processes Involved in Textual Transformation 65
2.3.4 Regulatory Processes in the Dissemination of International News 68
2.3.5 Translator and Translation Competence in Media Contexts 73
2.4 The Discourse of News 83
2.4.1 News as a Social Construct 84
2.4.2 Ideologies in the Discourse of News Reports 87
Research Methodology 97
3.1 Research Type 98
3.2 Research Models 99
3.3 Data Collection 102
3.4 Case Study as a Research Tool 104
3.5 Field Research 105
3.6 Data Analysis 109
3.7 Translation-Orientated Approaches to Text and Discourse Analysis 109
3.8 What is Critical Discourse Analysis? 114
3.9 Theoretical Objections to the Use of CDA in Translated Texts 122
3.10 The Application of CDA in this Study 126
Case Studies and Analysis 133
4.1 Case Study One – Manuel Zelaya’s ‘Referendum’ 136
4.2 Case Study Two – Prospecting for Oil in the Falkland Islands/Islas Malvinas 167
4.3 Case Study Three – Spain’s Economic Crisis 177
4.4 Conclusions from Case Studies 185
5 Findings and Conclusions 193
5.1 Main Findings 193
5.2 Challenges and Limitations of the Study 203
5.3 Further Research 206
Bibliography 213
Appendices 231
1 Questions for Unstructured Interviews – Newspaper and Agency Journalists 231
2 Questions for Unstructured Interviews – Newspaper Editors 233
3 Newspaper Extracts Pertaining to Case Study One 234
4 Newspaper Extracts Pertaining to Case Study Two 239
5 Newspaper Extracts Pertaining to Case Study Three 240


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دانلود پایان نامه کارشناسی مترجمی زبان انگلیسی با موضوع Shifts of meaning in humour translation as exemplified by the Polish translation of Shrek که شامل 43 صفحه و بشرح زیر میباشد: محمد .ا 1394/11/14 دسته بندی : زبان خارجه 0

دانلود پایان نامه کارشناسی مترجمی زبان انگلیسی با موضوع  Shifts of meaning in humour translation as exemplified by the Polish translation of Shrek که شامل 43 صفحه و بشرح زیر میباشد:

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Table of contents
Introduction 2
1. Theoretical part 3
1.1. Humour 3
1.1.1. The definition of humour and its types 3
1.1.2. Translation theory and humour 3
1.1.3. Difficulties related to humour translation 4
1.1.4. Possible translation strategies in humour translation 5
1.1.5. Humour untranslatability 6
1.1.6. Shifts of meaning in humour translation 7
1.2. Dubbing 8
1.2.1. The definition of screen translation and dubbing 8
1.2.2. Advantages of dubbing 8
1.2.3. Constraints of dubbing 9
1.3. Shrek as an example of a dubbed comedy film 11
2. Analytical part 13
2.1. Shifts of meaning 13
2.2. Domestication 20
2.3. Allusions 26
2.4. Puns 35
Conclusion 39
References 40
Films under discussion 43


Introduction
Researchers present divergent opinions concerning shifts of meaning. Some
scholars regard translation shifts as a negative effect of a translation process
and criticize introducing modifications to the source text (ST). Others argue
that there are various situations when such shifts are simply impossible to avoid,
e.g. in the case of humour translation.
This thesis explores the notion of shifts of meaning in humour translation.
The study is based on a popular animated film Shrek. The film constitutes a perfect
subject for the discussion due to numerous examples of translation shifts that can be
noticed between the source and the target text (TT).
The aim of this study is to prove that shifts of meaning in the case of humour
translation in Shrek are unavoidable and even desirable, and that they result from
the specificity of dubbing and humour translation.
My analysis is based on the comparison and description of various differences
in meaning between the original English dialogues (in bold face) and the translation
by Bartosz Wierzbięta – the author of the Polish version of Shrek (underlined).
The literal translation of the source dialogues is provided in square brackets.
The thesis is divided into two chapters. In the first, theoretical part, humour
and various aspects connected with humour translation are described, and the translation
of dubbed films is examined. The analytical part consists of four subsections, in which
shifts of meaning in the Polish translation of Shrek are discussed and the possible
.........reasons for introducing them are analysed


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دانلود پایان نامه دکترای مترجمی زبان انگلیسی با موضوع Domain Adaptation for Translation Models in Statistical Machine Translation محمد .ا 1394/11/14 دسته بندی : زبان خارجه 0

دانلود پایان نامه دکترای مترجمی زبان انگلیسی با موضوع Domain Adaptation for Translation Models in Statistical Machine Translation که شامل 147 صفحه و بشرح زیر میباشد:

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Abstract
We investigate methods to adapt translation models in SMT to a specific target domain.
We discuss two major problems, unknown words because of data sparseness in the (indomain)
training data, and ambiguities arising from out-of-domain parallel texts with different
domain-specific translations. We propose novel solutions to both problems.
The main contributions of this thesis are as follows:
 We present a novel translation model architecture that supports domain adaptation at
decoding time from a vector of component models. The combination is implemented
through instance weighting, and all statistics necessary for the computation of translation
probabilities are stored in the models.
 We present an architecture to combine multiple MT systems, using techniques and
ideas from domain adaptation. The hypotheses by external MT systems are treated
as out-of-domain knowledge, and combined with in-domain data through instance
weighting.
 We introduce a sentence alignment algorithm that is able to robustly align even noisy
parallel texts. We found that higher-quality sentence alignment of the in-domain parallel
text has a significant effect on translation quality in our target domain.
 We propose new translation model features that express how flexible, or general, translation
units are, in order to prevent translations that only occur in the context of multiword
expressions from being overgeneralised.
Wir untersuchen Methoden zur Anpassung von Übersetzungsmodellen in SMÜ an eine bestimmte
Zieldomäne. Wir diskutieren zwei Hauptprobleme: spärliche Daten in den Trainingsdaten
der Zieldomäne führen zu unbekannten Wörtern, und der Herbeizug von Daten
aus Fremddomänen verursacht Mehrdeutigkeiten. Für beide Probleme präsentieren wir neue
Lösungsansätze.
Die Hauptbeiträge dieser Dissertation sind folgende:
 Wir präsentieren eine Architektur für Übersetzungsmodelle, welche aus einem Vektor
von Teilmodellen besteht und Domänenadaption während der Übersetzung selbst
erlaubt. Die Kombination der Teilmodelle wird über eine Gewichtung von Vorkommenshäufigkeiten
vollzogen.
 Wir stellen eine Architektur zur Kombination verschiedener Übersetzungssysteme
mittels Techniken aus der Domänenadaption vor. Die Hypothesen externer Übersetzungssysteme
werden dabei wie Wissen aus einer Fremddomäne behandelt, und mit
Daten aus der Zieldomäne kombiniert.
 Wir präsentieren ein Satzalignierungsverfahren, welches auch verrauschte parallele
Texte robust auf Satzebene alignieren kann. Durch die Erhöhung der Satzalignierungsqualität
erreichen wir eine signifikant bessere Übersetzungsqualität.
 Wir schlagen neue Merkmale für Übersetzungsmodelle vor, welche die Flexibilität
von Übersetzungseinheiten ausdrücken, und verhindern, dass inflexible Übersetzungen,
welche nur innerhalb eines Mehrwortausdrucks vorkommen, übergeneralisiert
werden.

Contents
1 Introduction 17
1.1 Problem: Domain-specific Statistical Machine Translation 17
1.2 Thesis Contributions 18
1.3 Outline 19
2 Statistical Machine Translation 21
2.1 Statistical Models for Machine Translation 21
2.1.1 Word-based SMT 21
2.1.2 Log-Linear Models 22
2.2 Phrase-based Translation Models 23
2.2.1 Learning Phrase Translations 23
2.3 Discriminative Training 24
2.4 SMT Evaluation 25
2.4.1 BLEU and METEOR 25
2.4.2 Randomness and Statistical Significance 27
2.5 Alternative Translation Models 27
2.5.1 Hierarchical and Syntax-based Translation Models28
2.5.2 N-Gram Translation Models 28
2.5.3 Continuous Space Translation Models29
2.6 Domain Adaptation in SMT 30
2.6.1 Language Model Adaptation 30
2.6.2 Translation Model Adaptation 31
3 Domain-specific Language 35
3.1 The Text+Berg Corpus 35
3.2 Europarl 36
3.3 Linguistic Differences between Text+Berg and Europarl 36
4 Building a Domain-specific SMT system 43
4.1 Experimental Data and Model Configurations 43
4.1.1 Corpora 43
4.1.2 Tools and Models 45
4.2 SMT Learning Curves: How Important is In-domain Data? 46
4.3 Summary 52
5 Improving Data Collection: Sentence Alignment 53
5.1 Related Work 55
5.2 MT-based Sentence Alignment 56
5.3 Bleualign: Algorithm 57
5.3.1 Weighting Sentence Pairs58
5.3.2 Dynamic Programming Search 58
5.3.3 Additional Alignment Procedures 59
5.4 Evaluation of Sentence Alignment 60
5.5 On the Relation Between Sentence Alignment Quality and SMT Performance 62
5.6 Summary64
6 Translation Model Combination: Tackling the Ambiguity Problem 65
6.1 Discussion of Domain Adaptation Techniques 66
6.1.1 Log-linear Interpolation66
6.1.2 Linear Interpolation 67
6.1.3 Instance Weighting 69
6.1.4 Data Selection 70
6.1.5 Priority Merge 71
6.1.6 Origin Features 71
6.2 Perplexity 72
6.2.1 Theoretical Background72
6.2.2 Translation Model Perplexity73
6.2.3 Perplexity Minimization 75
6.3 Evaluation of Domain Adaptation Techniques 76
6.3.1 Data and Methods 76
6.3.2 Results 78
6.4 The Impact of Weights 87
6.5 Domain Adaptation with Unsupervised Clustering of Training Data 91
6.5.1 Clustering with Exponential Smoothing 92
6.5.2 Model Combination 94
6.5.3 Evaluation 94
6.6 A Multi-Domain Translation Model Architecture 96
6.7 Summary 100
7 Integrating Other Knowledge Sources: Multi-Engine Machine Translation 103
7.1 Related Work103
7.2 A Multi-Engine MT Architecture 104
7.3 Translation Model Combination 105
7.4 Evaluation of Multi-Engine MT 106
7.4.1 On the Use of Perplexity for Machine-Translated Text 109
7.4.2 Combining Out-of-domain Data and Translation Hypotheses 111
7.5 Summary 112
8 Multiword Expressions and Flexibility Features 115
8.1 Introduction 116
8.2 Related Work 116
8.3 Learning Translations in SMT 117
8.4 Flexibility Features 118
8.4.1 Variants for Hierarchical Phrase-based Models 121
8.5 Filtering Hierarchical Rule Tables 122
8.6 Evaluation of Flexibility Scores 123
8.6.1 Data and Methods 123
8.6.2 Phrase-based Results 124
8.6.3 Hierarchical Results 126
8.7 Summary 127
9 Conclusion and Outlook 129
Bibliography 133
10 Appendix 147


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دانلود پایان نامه دکترای زبان انگلیسی با عنوان The Semantics and Pragmatics of Demonstratives in English and Arabic محمد .ا 1394/11/14 دسته بندی : زبان خارجه 0

دانلود پایان نامه دکترای زبان انگلیسی با عنوان The Semantics and Pragmatics of Demonstratives in English and Arabic که شامل 272 صفحه و بشرح زیر میباشد:

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Abstract

This research investigates the semantics and pragmatics of demonstratives in two
languages, English and Arabic, within the framework of relevance theory. The study applies
the fundamental distinction between ‘conceptual’ and ‘procedural’ semantics in an attempt to
account for the various instantiations of such referring expressions in the two languages. I
argue that demonstratives play a crucial role in aligning the discourse models of the speaker
and hearer by encoding procedural semantics instructing the hearer to maintain or create a
joint level of attention to the intended referent as opposed to other referential candidates.
Following Diessel (2006), I take it that this notion of joint attention subsumes all the
cognitive and functional roles played by demonstratives in discourse. I also argue that
demonstratives encode a (pro)concept of distance which falls under the scope of the
attention-directing procedure, thus creating the internal contrast between the intended referent
and other candidate referents. Within this proposal, I discuss how demonstratives can
contribute to both the explicit and the implicit levels of meaning by virtue of the interaction
between their encoded semantics and the context in a relevance-driven framework. Compared
to other referring expressions or no referring expression at all, the role of a demonstrative
achieves relevance on the implicit level. It can either highlight a certain aspect of the referent,
or encourage the creation of weak implicatures, or signal a certain cognitive/emotional
attitude towards the referent. The study is supported by an analysis of corpus data from both
languages in order to supplement theoretical proposals with attested evidence.
I further extend my analysis to include two areas. First, I discuss cases of self-repair in
spoken English discourse which involves the definite article and demonstratives. By linking
the notion of self-repair to that of optimal relevance, I shed some light on the semantic and
pragmatic differences between these two referring expressions. Second, I extend my analysis
to include other forms of demonstratives in Arabic and explore their semantic and pragmatic
behaviour in discourse. I propose a procedural account for the three forms attentional haa,
kadhaalik and haakadhaa, arguing that their contribution goes well beyond that of mere
demonstrative reference to that of being discourse markers encoding procedural constraints
on interpretation. I also investigate some alternative syntactic structures where
demonstratives occur, arguing that the stylistic effect of emphasis which they give rise to can
be explained in terms of relevant cognitive effects.Contents

Contents

Abstract ii
Acknowledgements iii
List of Tables and Figures vii
Arabic Transcription Notations viii
List of Abbreviations ix
Chapter 1: Introduction 10
1.1 Aims of the research 10
1.2 Theoretical 14
1.3 Data 15
1.3.1 The English Corpus (ICE-GB) 16
1.3.2 The Arabic Corpus (NEMLAR) 19
1.4 Structure of the thesis 23
Chapter 2: Previous studies 26
2.1 Reference 26
2.2 Demonstratives in English 29
2.3 Demonstratives in Arabic 33
2.4 Cognitive approaches 39
2.4.1 The Givenness Hierarchy 40
2.4.2 Demonstratives and interaction 45
2.3.3 Demonstratives and joint attention 48
2.5 Summary 52
Chapter 3: Relevance theory 54
3.1 Relevance theory 54
3.1.1 Relevance theory and communication 54
3.1.2 Inference and understanding 57
3.1.3 Explicating and implicating 61
3.1.4 Relevance and reference 65
3.2 Concepts and procedures 70
3.2.1 The conceptual-procedural distinction and the explicit-implicit distinction .......... 72
3.2.2 The conceptual-procedural distinction and truth 76
3.2.3 Types of concepts 78
3.3 Summary 81
Chapter 4. The semantics and pragmatics of demonstratives 83
4.1 The semantics of demonstratives 83
4.1.1 What do demonstratives encode? 84
4.1.2 Demonstratives and 86
4.1.3 Demonstratives and attention 92
4.1.4 Distance, attention and relevance 101
4.2 The interpretation of demonstratives 107
4.2.1 Demonstratives and explicit content 107
4.2.2 Demonstratives and implicit content 125
4.2.3 First-mention demonstratives 136
4.3 Summary 142
Chapter 5. Extending the analysis: Demonstratives and Self-Repair in English 143
5.1 Demonstratives and self-repair 143
5.1.1 The definite article and demonstratives 144
5.1.2 Self-repair and relevance 151
5.1.3 The this/that 154
5.1.4 This/that the 157
5.1.5 Distal or proximal? 161
5.2 Summary 164
Chapter 6. Extending the analysis: Other forms of demonstratives in Modern Standard Arabic165
6.1 The morphology and semantics of demonstratives in MSA 165
6.1.1 Demonstrative forms in MSA and varieties of Arabic 167
6.1.2 Arabic and procedural meaning 171
6.2 Case studies 177
6.2.1 Attentional haa: procedure and attention 177
6.2.1.1 Approaches to attentional haa 179
6.2.1.2 The relevance of attentional haa 183
6.2.2 kadhaalik: demonstrative or discourse 191
6.2.2.1 A distinction 192
6.2.2.2 kadhaalik as a demonstrative 195
6.2.2.3 kadhaalik as a discourse marker 205
6.2.3 haakadhaa: deictic, anaphoric and discourse functions 219
6.2.3.1 A distinction 221
6.2.3.3 haakadhaa in discourse marker uses 227
6.3 A note on demonstratives and the interpretation of emphasis 235
6.3.1 Noun + demonstrative 236
6.3.2 Proper noun + demonstrative 242
6.3.3 Demonstrative + 3rd person pronoun + noun 249
6.4 Summary 254
Chapter 7. Conclusion 255
7.1 Summary 255
7.2 Future research 259
References 262
List of Tables and Figures
Table 1: The English corpus chosen for this study from the ICE-GB 19
Table 2: The Arabic corpus chosen for this study from NEMLAR 23
Table 3: Demonstrative forms in MSA 34
Table 4: The lexical semantics of the pronoun she (from Nicolle 1997: 49) 104
Table 5: Demonstratives in MSA according to Holes (2004) 169
Table 6: Proximal demonstrative forms in Arabic dialects 169
Table 7: Distal demonstrative forms in Arabic dialects 170
Table 8: Number of instances of kadhaalik in the corpus 206
Table 9: Number of instances of haakadhaa in the corpus 221
Figure 1: Proposed semantic analysis for English/Arabic demonstratives 12
Figure 2: Screen shot of that concordance in the ICE-GB using the ICECUP 18
Figure 3: Screen shot of haadhihi concordance in NEMLAR using LOLO 22
Figure 4: The Givenness Hierarchy according to Gundel et al. (1993) 41
Figure 5: Four types of meaning according to Wilson & Sperber 74
Figure 6: The morphology of haadhaa 177
Figure 7: The morphology of kadhaalik 191
Figure 8: The morphology of 220


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Shifts in Non-Literary Translation : with focus on EU translation

Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 6
1. Style and shifts........................................................................................................... 9
1.1. Style and how to study it........................................................................................ 9
1.2. Shifts in Translation............................................................................................. 11
2. Translation in the European Union......................................................................... 14
2.1. Language policy of the European Union ............................................................. 14
2.2. Problems of EU translation.................................................................................. 15
2.3. EU translation from the perspective of translation studies ............................. 18
3. An Analysis of Style through Shifts in Literary Translation – method proposed by
Hilkka Pekkanen .......................................................................................................... 21
3.1. Objectives of the analysis .................................................................................... 21
3.2. Description of the method.................................................................................... 22
3.3. Findings and evaluation of the method................................................................ 24
4. Methodology............................................................................................................. 26
4.1. Analysed texts...................................................................................................... 27
4.1.1. EU documents............................................................................................... 28
4.1.2. Non-EU documents....................................................................................... 28
4.2. Application of the method and related problems............................................. 30
4.2.1. Types of translation shifts............................................................................. 32
4.2.2. Definition of units of comparison................................................................. 32
4.2.3. Differences between the English and the Slovak Language......................... 33
4.3. Illustration of the method................................................................................... 37
5. Categories of Optional Shifts.................................................................................. 43
5
5.1. Expansion shifts ................................................................................................... 45
5.2. Contraction shifts ................................................................................................. 47
5.3. Shifts in order....................................................................................................... 50
5.4. Miscellaneous shifts............................................................................................. 51
6. Analysis and Its Findings......................................................................................... 54
6.1. General results for respective extracts .............................................................. 54
6.2. Results for respective categories........................................................................ 61
6.2.1. Expansion shifts ............................................................................................ 61
6.2.2. Contraction shifts .......................................................................................... 64
6.2.3. Shifts in order................................................................................................ 66
6.2.4. Miscellaneous shifts...................................................................................... 67
6.3. Summary of the findings.................................................................................... 68
6.4. Evaluation of the method and its problems....................................................... 69
CONCLUSION............................................................................................................... 72
Works Cited ................................................................................................................ 75
Primary sources........................................................................................................... 75
Secondary Sources ...................................................................................................... 76
Resumé – English ........................................................................................................ 79
Resumé – Slovak.......................................................................................................... 80
Appendix A– CD with all the analysed extracts

INTRODUCTION
As suggested by its title, Shifts in Non-Literary Translation, the present thesis deals with
the analysis of certain aspects of non-literary translation, namely translation shifts.
Translation shifts are changes introduced to the target text during the translation process,
whether motivated by objective reasons or subjective preferences of the translator. The
method used in this work to study the translation shifts was proposed by a Finnish scholar
Hilkka Pekkanen in order to study the shifts in literary texts.
The purpose for which Pekkanen (2010) created this method was to study the style of
translators of literary works and to find out whether the 'translator's voice' can be heard in
their translations. The details of her research will be presented later in Chapter 3. Since the
analysis yielded satisfactory results in the domain of literary translations, I would like to try
to apply this method on a different kind of texts in order to examine whether it can work
in other domains too. The first objective of this thesis thus is to test the application of
Pekkanen's method on non-literary texts, and with a different target language; but at the
same time the thesis aims to study the patterns of shifting within non-literary translation,
especially in the documents translated within the European Union institutions as compared
with other non-literary texts.
EU translation represents a specific category of non-literary translation. One of its
dominant characteristics is that EU translators should try to be as faithful to the original as
possible, to avoid different understanding of respective documents in their different
language versions. Another thing is that the translations are usually not a product of one
individual translator but of a whole group of translators, revisers and consultants.
Therefore it is impossible to speak of the style of an individual. Nevertheless, due to these
and other specific features (discussed in Chapter 2), which distinguish EU translation from
other kinds of non-literary translation, it is possible that certain consistency might be found
in the style of EU translation as such. To study whether such consistency exists or whether
each text bears a thumbprint of individual translators, like in the case of literary works, is
.....thus the second objective of this thesis


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دانلود پایان نامه ارشد مترجمی زبان با موضوع کنایه یا تمثیل در گفتمان سیاسی و راهکارهایی برای تفسیر و ترجمه محمد .ا 1394/11/14 دسته بندی : زبان خارجه 0

دانلود پایان نامه ارشد مترجمی زبان با موضوع کنایه یا تمثیل در گفتمان سیاسی و راهکارهایی برای تفسیر و ترجمه آن که شامل 60 صفحه و بشرح زیر میباشد:

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Figurative language in political discourse and strategies for its interpreting

Table of contents
1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 1
2 Theoretical Part ................................................................................................... 3
2.1 Political discourse .............................................................................................. 3
2.1.1 Nature of political speech............................................................................... 3
2.2 Figurative expressions in political discourse ...................................................... 4
2.2.1 First Inaugural Address of George W. Bush .................................................. 4
2.2.2 Inaugural Address passages............................................................................ 5
2.3 The techniques of interpreting in general ............................................................ 12
2.3.1 Reformulation............................................................................................... 13
2.3.2 The salami technique.................................................................................... 14
2.3.3 Simplification ............................................................................................... 15
2.3.4 Generalization............................................................................................... 16
2.3.5 Explanation................................................................................................... 16
2.3.6 Summarizing................................................................................................. 17
2.4 Rhetoric and types of rhetorical devices.............................................................. 17
2.4.1 Rhetoric ........................................................................................................ 18
2.4.2 Some rhetorical devices................................................................................ 19
2.4.2.1 Figure ........................................................................................................ 19
2.4.2.2 Phrase........................................................................................................ 20
2.4.2.3 Metaphor................................................................................................... 20
2.4.2.4 Idiom......................................................................................................... 20
2.4.2.5 Proverb...................................................................................................... 21
2.5 Strategies of interpreting................................................................................. 22
2.5.1 Replacement by similar expression.............................................................. 23
2.5.2 Replacement by equivalent expression ........................................................ 23
2.5.3 Explanation, rephrasing, paraphrasing ......................................................... 24
2.5.3.1 Explanation ............................................................................................... 24
2.5.3.2 Paraphrasing.............................................................................................. 25
2.5.3.3 Rephrasing ................................................................................................ 25
2.5.4 Omission....................................................................................................... 25
3 Practical Part .................................................................................................... 27
3.1 Introduction to the practical part.......................................................................... 27
3.2 Corpus.................................................................................................................. 28
3.3 Tables with students’ interpretations ................................................................... 28
4 Statistics............................................................................................................... 42
4.1 The summary of techniques and strategies used:................................................. 42
4.2 The summary of strategies used with rhetorical devices: .................................... 43
5 Conclusion............................................................................................................. 44
6 Resumé................................................................................................................. 46
7 Appendix ............................................................................................................. 48
7.1 Appendix 1 – Transcription of the original speech............................................. 48
8 Bibliography.......................................................................................................... 52
8.1 Work cited........................................................................................................... 52
8.2 Internet sources ............................................................................................... 52
9 Anotace ................................................................................................................ 54

INTRODUCTION
Metaphors, idioms, proverbs or as we can collectively call them figurative or rhetorical language are often a common problem for interpreters and translators. The main issue is that sometimes interpreters simply cannot find an adequate translation for such rhetorical device and therefore they have to improvise. While in translation this can be easier since translators usually have the required time to do the necessary research in order to find the best equivalent for the target language1, in interpreting they do not. For this reason I have decided to focus mainly on the interpreting theory and practice in this thesis, although in certain cases the translating part will be described as well.
An interpreter has to translate given expressions as quickly as possible and at the same time he or she has to faithfully convey the meaning of it. There are a few factors that an interpreter has to take into consideration in this process. The aim of this thesis is to focus on such factors like for example strategies and techniques of interpretation.
The thesis is separated into two parts, the first part, which is theoretical and the second part, which is practical. Both parts are then divided into another chapters and subchapters.
Political discourse will serve as a source of figurative expressions; specifically it will be the first inaugural speech of George W. Bush from the 11th of January 2001. Brief description of political discourse as well as the events around the inauguration of George W. Bush will be described in the first chapter of the thesis. This will be followed by analysis of chosen expressions from Bush’s Inaugural Address. Each expression will be explained and translated into Czech language, which will serve as a base for other parts of the thesis. In chapters 2.3 and 2.5 I will take a closer look at different kinds of techniques and strategies of interpreting both in general and with focus on rhetorical language; afterwards I will point out the advantages and disadvantages of their use for translating figurative expressions.
The practical part is an experiment, where a group of students listened to this inaugural address and they interpreted it into the Czech language. Following transcripts were rewritten and afterwards ten figurative expressions were extracted from their interpretations. These translated expressions were analyzed and compared with the translation proposed by me. Focus was also put on the appropriateness of individual technique and strategy for each rhetorical device and on interpreter’s understanding of the context. On the base of the frequency of techniques and strategies used in the extracts the evaluation and conclusion were made.


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دانلود پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد رشته مترجمی و تفسیر زبان انگلیسی با موضوع Polysemous Verbs in Jambi Malay: an Optimization of Interpretation Approach محمد .ا 1394/11/12 دسته بندی : زبان خارجه 0

دانلود پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد رشته مترجمی و تفسیر زبان انگلیسی با موضوع Polysemous Verbs in Jambi Malay: an Optimization of Interpretation Approach که شامل  54 صفحه و بشرح زیر میباشد:

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Table of contents
Acknowledgements ii Table of contents iv 
1. Introduction 1
2. An Optimality Theoretic Account 5
2.1 Basic Concepts of OT 5
2.2 OT Semantics 6 2.2.1 Polysemy 6
2.2.2 Zwarts (2004) 8
2.2.3 Foolen and de Hoop (to appear) 11
2.2.4 Conclusion 20 
3. The Analysis of the Bare Verb Raso 21
3.1 The Interpretations of the Bare Verb Raso 21 
3.2 The Optimization Process of Interpretations of the Bare Verb Raso in OT Semantics 27
3.3. Conclusion 
34 4. The Analysis of the Bare Verb Kato 
35 4.1 The Interpretations of the Bare Verb Kato 35 
4.2 The Optimization Process of Interpretations of the Bare Verb Kato in OT Semantics 41 
4.3 Conclusion 45 
5. General Conclusions 46 
References


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دانلود پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد رشته آموزش زبان انگلیسی با موضوع THE IMPLEMENTATION OF COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING (CLT) IN AN ENGLISH DEPARTMENT IN A LAO HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION محمد .ا 1394/11/12 دسته بندی : زبان خارجه 0

دانلود پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد رشته آموزش زبان انگلیسی با موضوع THE IMPLEMENTATION OF COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING (CLT) IN AN ENGLISH DEPARTMENT IN A LAO HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION که شامل  108 صفحه و بشرح زیر میباشد:

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ABSTRACT
English language is an international language used in order to communicate in the fields of
education, technology, trade and politics so that it is learnt as a foreign language in many
countries around the world. Due to the importance and necessity to communicate in
English, in recent decades many EFL countries as well as Lao higher educational
institutions have shifted from traditional grammar-based teaching method to
communicative-focused instruction. However, some research has reported that there is still
has a gap between schools’ language policy and classrooms’ practices. This study explores
the understandings and attitudes of English teachers in adopting a Communicative
Language Teaching (CLT) approach into their classrooms. It investigates factors that
promote or hinder EFL teachers’ implementation of this teaching approach into Lao higher
educational institutions English classrooms. It also examines the syllabi that influence
them in teaching communicative English.
This qualitative study investigated the perceptions of English teachers in a Department of
English and a case study approach was applied in order to explore teachers’ understandings
of CLT. Ten English teachers from one department in a Lao higher education institution
were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. The study compares the literature about
communicative English teaching with the findings of data collected from these ten one-toone,
in-depth interviews in the same setting.
The findings indicated that the factors that affected the implementation of CLT in the Lao
context related to teachers’ factors include: misconceptions of CLT, traditional grammarbased
teaching approach, teachers’ English proficiency and lack of CLT training. The
issues raised from students include: students’ low English proficiency, students’ learning
styles and behaviours, and lack of motivation to develop communicative competence.
Other difficulties caused by educational system were: the power of the examination, class
size, and insufficient funding to support CLT and the last factors caused by CLT itself was:
the lack of CLT interaction in society and school.
The study also provides a range of practical recommendations for the faculty deans, senior
managers at higher educational institutions, ministry educators and policy-makers to
further improve implementation of CLT and to help ensure the success in implementing
this approach in Lao higher educational institutions.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Pages
DECLARATION……………………………………………………………………..........ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT……………………………………………………………........iii
ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………………..........iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………………………………….vi
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS…………………………………………………………….vii
LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………………........ix
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW………………...………………1
1.1. NTRODUCTION……………………………………………..………………….…….1
1.2. BACKGROUND OF CLT……………………………………………..……..………..1
1.3. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY………….…………………………………..……3
1.4. VALUE OF THE RESEARCH………………,……………………………………….5
1.5. RESEARCH AIMS AND QUESTIONS………………………………………….......6
1.6. OVERVIEW OF THE RESEARCH…………………………………………….……..6
1.7. SUMMARY………………………………………………………………………........7
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW………………………………………..…......8
2.1. INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………..….……8
2.2. COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE………………………………………..….……8
2.3. DEFINITION OF COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING………………....9
2.4. CHARACTERISTICS AND PRINCIPLES OF CLT………………………….……..10
2.5. ADOPTION OF CLT IN EFL CONTEXTS…………………………………...……..10
2.6. ISSUES OF ADOPTING CLT IN EFL CONTEXTS…………….…………….........12
2.7. SUMMARY…………………………………………………………….…….………27
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY………………………………………………....28
3.1. INTRODUCTION……………………………………….…………….……....……..28
3.2. METHODOLOGY…………………………………………………….……......…....28
3.3. RESEARCH METHODS…………………………………………………………….35
3.4. DATA COLLECTION……………………………………..…………………….......37
3.5. DATA ANALYSIS…………………………………………………………………..38
3.6. RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY……………………………………………….......40
3.7. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS…………………………………………………….42
3.8. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY………………………………………….………..43
3.9. SUMMARY………………………………………….………………………………44
CHAPTER FOUR: FINDINGS………………………………………………..…………45
4.1. INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………45
4.2. TEACHER BACKGROUNDS……………………………………….………….......45
4.3. INVOLVEMENT IN CLT………………………………………………………........46
4.4. INTERPRETATION OF CLT……………………………………………………......47
4.5. BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENTING CLT…………………………………………….53
4.6. SUMMARY…………………………………………………………………………..67
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS……..68
5.1. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………….………68
5.2. MAJOR FINDINGS………………………………………..………………….……...68
5.3. RECOMMENDATIONS……………………………………………………….….....84
5.4. FUTURE RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES……………………………………….....86
5.5. RESEARCH SUMMARY……………………………………………………………86
REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………….……87
APPENDIX…………………………………………………………...……………….…..95
Appendix 1: Qualitative Research for In-depth Interview Questions………………..........95
Appendix 2: Participant Consent Form………………..….……………………….….…...96
Appendix 3: Information Sheet………..…….………...…..………………………………98


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دانلود پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد رشته آموزش زبان انگلیسی با موضوع Learner response, teacher methodology and cognition on teaching L2 grammar at upper secondary school in Norway محمد .ا 1394/11/12 دسته بندی : زبان خارجه 1

دانلود پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد رشته آموزش زبان انگلیسی با موضوع Learner response, teacher methodology and cognition on teaching L2 grammar at upper secondary school in Norway که شامل  114 صفحه و بشرح زیر میباشد:

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1. Introduction 1
1.1 Aim and research questions 1
1.2 Relevance 1
1.3 Theory 2
1.4 Methodology 4
1.5 Thesis outline 6
Chapter 2. Literary review 6
2.1 Introduction 6
2.2 Definition of 7
2.3. Understanding Grammar 9
2.4. Grammar teaching: A historical perspective 9
2.5. Second language acquisition process 11
2.5.1 Input and Intake 11
2.5.2 Acquisition 12
2.5.3 Access and Output 12
2.6. Teaching grammar techniques, methods, and approaches 13
2.6.1 Task-based learning (TBL) 13
2.6.2 Feedback 16
2.6.3 Benefits and challenges of teaching grammar 18
2.6.4 Teaching grammar to L2 learners 21
2.6.5 Teaching according to learner context 22
2.6.6 Teaching Grammar in Norway 24
2.7 Summary 27
Chapter 3: Methodology 28
3.1 Introduction 28
3.2 Choosing a qualitative method 28
3.3 Participant sampling 29
3.4 Data collection method 31
3.5 Data analysis method 35
3.7 Ethics 37
3.8 Summary 38
4. Interview summaries 39
4.1 Teacher interview summaries 39
4.2 Learner interview summaries 58
5. Discussion 69
5.1 Introduction 69
5.2 Methodology and teacher cognition 69
5.2.1 Learner context and grammatical presentation 69
5.2.2 Feedback 73
5.2.3 Task work 76
5.2.4 Integrating grammar with work on language skills 79
5.3 Learner discussion. 86
5.4 Further research 90
5.5 Limitations of the study 91
6. Conclusion 91
References 97
Appendix 1 101
Teacher Interview Guide 101
Appendix 2 108
Student Focus group Interview Guide 108

Abstract
This thesis aimed at exploring teacher cognition (knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices) in relation to the teaching of grammar of English as a secondary language at upper secondary school in Norway, academic VG1, vocational VG1, and VG2. Its relevance was based on there being no specific grammatical requirements as part of the English curriculum of LK06, the grammatical expectations are based on generalized statements of learner competence that requires implicit or explicit grammatical knowledge. The thesis further aimed to obtain the learners’ opinion on their teacher’s methodology. The data was obtained through a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with five teachers and focus group interviews with 30 learners, divided equally.
The study revealed that the majority of the teachers had negative attitudes towards the teaching of explicit grammar and that they never approached implicit acquisition of grammar as a primary aim. Although they considered grammar important as part of language acquisition, most expected that their learners should have acquired the necessary grammar prior to upper secondary school. The teachers’ cognition regarding grammar was reflected in how irregularly they addressed grammar throughout a year.
The findings of the study suggested that the learner context was the most influential factor as to why and how often they taught grammar, especially in regards to the vocational teachers who had to adapt to the extreme differences in proficiency among their learners. The teachers varied in regards to how they addressed grammar explicitly and implicitly, and the majority in accordance with their cognition. Feedback to written and oral activities, grammatical presentations, and grammatical task work were revealed as the primary approaches and techniques used in order to teach explicit grammar.
The teachers’ primary focus was on the acquisition of grammar implicitly through input and output. There were no signs that indicated common agreement among the teachers regarding a preferential activity of reading, writing, or oral activities, although the individual teachers had their own preferences, which stemmed from teacher cognition based primarily on their individual learner context, previous experience, and education.
The learner interviews largely reflected the cognition of the teachers in a positive manner, especially the use of feedback and variety. Although there was one case which showed to be particularly negative, even though the teacher had similar sentiments towards the weaknesses, unveiled by both teacher and learner
The significance of this study is that there is a clear knowledge gap regarding research on the teaching of grammar at upper secondary school in Norway, specifically at academic VG1, vocational VG1, and VG2. Thus, this thesis contributes to a field which has not been given sufficient attention. It may also be used by teachers in order to gain insight into how grammar is being taught and into the influence of a learner context on teacher cognition. Further research may be done on learner-context-based teaching and applying appropriate approaches, methods, and techniques to learner contexts in multi-level classes.


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دانلود فایل پاورپوینت درس هفتم زبان انگلیسی سال اول راهنمايي محمد .ا 1394/11/04 دسته بندی : زبان خارجه 0

دانلود فایل پاورپوینت درس هفتم زبان انگلیسی سال اول راهنمايي که شامل 23 اسلاید میباشد:

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*همراه با تلفظ صحیح و تصاویر مربوطه برای یادگیری سریع و راحت



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خرید ودانلود سوالات کنکور عربی امیر حسین طالبی 1394/09/22 دسته بندی : زبان خارجه 1


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